“You found my last living relative!”

Old man using telephoneAs part of a nostalgia season we’re having in the bureau this month, I thought I’d revisit some of my more meaningful blog posts. I hope you enjoy them:

Earlier this year a new client approached us to do some research for his wife, Jenny, as a gift. Before she was born, Jenny’s natural father, Michael, had been killed in a car accident and her mother had never spoken about either the tragedy or her late husband. Jenny was desperate to find out anything she could about her father from certificates and documents or perhaps from someone who knew him.

Our work began by ordering in as many certificates as we could, to give Jenny some information about Michael’s life. However, as it was fairly recent history there was not much detail and we felt it was not enough. So we set about tracing Michael’s family to see if he had had any siblings or cousins who might remember him. Tracing families forward to find living relatives is a tricky business as we become so reliant on certificates which need to be ordered in, and it can be a slow and painstaking job. There were no certificates relating to Michael’s only brother and we very quickly lost the trail of his cousins on his father’s side of the family. However, on his mother’s side, we were able to find one solitary name, a cousin of Michael’s, 78 year old Sidney, who appeared from the electoral rolls to be living in Norfolk. We wrote him a letter.

Yesterday we received a phone call from Sidney who quickly confirmed his connection to Jenny and was pleased to say that he had known her father, Michael, right up until his death. What was more, Sidney told us that only two weeks before, he had been talking to his wife about how alone he felt in this world, having had no children of his own and no other living relatives that he knew of. His wife reminded him that Michael’s child was still “out there somewhere,” although they had no idea where.

When our letter dropped onto the mat yesterday morning, Sidney was taken aback at the co-incidence, which he put down to a gift from God. After a long and gleeful conversation with Sidney he asked us to pass on his details to Jenny and encourage her to get in touch, which we did later that same evening via an emotional phone call. Jenny was lost for words and clearly couldn’t wait to phone Sidney herself. For her, we gave a long-hoped-for chance to hear all about her Dad and for Sidney we put him in touch with his last living relative. Needless to say there were a few tears of joy shed in our office too – poignant stories like this one give us such satisfaction in our work!

What were ‘Dissenting’ Churches?

Pilgrim Fathers boarding the Mayflower, painting by Bernard Gribble.

Pilgrim Fathers boarding the Mayflower, painting by Bernard Gribble.

Thanks to our researcher, David Matthew, for this week’s blog about dissenting or non-conformist churches, with special reference to the Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion, which we were asked about this week:

Background: unity under the Pope

Christianity was widespread in Britain—which was part of the Roman Empire—by the end of the third century AD.
In mainland Europe the western part of the Roman Empire soon came under serious threat from northern invaders and the last Roman legions in Britain left in 410 AD to defend Gaul and Italy from the invaders. With Britain undefended, pagan invaders from northern Germany poured in across the North Sea, destroying the church in eastern England and south-east Scotland. They were the Angles and Saxons.

British Christians fled westwards across the country from the invaders. This led to a situation where a belt of pagans down the eastern side of Britain cut off the British church at the western side—known as the Celtic Church—from the church in mainland Europe, which was centred on Rome and was effectively the Roman Catholic Church.

The two styles of Christianity in Britain developed quite separately, with the Celtic Church being overall simpler and less ritualistic in its approach than the Roman Church. Eventually, the Bishop of Rome, by this time known as the Pope, became unhappy with the Celtic Church’s isolation and in 597 AD sent Augustine to England to bring them into his fold. Augustine established a base in Canterbury and began evangelising the pagan Angles and Saxons, many of whom embraced Christianity.

In due course, as Roman Christianity spread in eastern Britain, the two styles of Christianity came to exist side by side and a confrontation became inevitable. This took place at the Synod of Whitby in 664, chaired by King Oswy of Northumbria. Representatives of both sides presented their cases, and Oswy declared the Roman Church the winner. After that, the Celtic Church faded rapidly and British Christianity in due course became all of the Roman Catholic variety.

The search for truth brings disunity: the Reformation

This state of affairs continued largely unchanged until the 16th century, when the Reformation took place. On the continent Martin Luther (Germany) and John Calvin (France and Switzerland) led many away from what they believed was a Roman Catholic Church too corrupt to change. They formed what soon came to be called Protestant churches—so called because they protested against the Pope’s attempts to dictate their doctrine and lifestyle.

In Britain at this period Henry VIII was on the throne. Piqued by the Pope’s refusal to grant him a divorce, he took the English church away from Rome’s jurisdiction and declared himself head of the church in his realm. Thus was born the Church of England. English Reformers, taking advantage of Henry’s action, quickly influenced the shape of church life in Britain in the direction of greater freshness and vitality. At the same time, Henry dissolved the many monasteries, seeing them as dangerous focus-points of remaining loyalty to Rome. The Church of England became the national church.

Further fragmentation: the Dissenters

All this gave English Christians an intoxicating taste of freedom, and some of them began to feel that the reforms under King Henry has failed to go far enough. Many, for instance, wanted the episcopal system of church government (a bishop over a diocese) replaced by a Presbyterian system (several ‘elders’ in each local church). They believed this to be more in line with the Bible’s teaching.

Others believed that the baptism of babies, practised by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, should be abandoned in favour of the baptism of believers only, that is, those old enough to make a personal commitment to Christ. In these and other desires these people dissented from the teaching of the mainstream, established church.

In the 17th century some of them withdrew completely and set up new churches where they could incorporate their preferred practices without interference. They were called ‘dissenters’, ‘separatists’ or ‘independents’, and many were severely persecuted for their stand, some even executed. Desperate for freedom to worship in line with the dictates of the consciences, without outside interference, some even left Britain for the New World—the Pilgrim Fathers left Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620. Over the next twenty years some 20,000 followed them to America.

Back in England, two groups managed to establish themselves as sizeable denominations on the basis of their form of church government, which they felt should come from every member having a vote. These were the Congregational Church, who practised infant baptism, and the Baptist Church (formed in 1611), who baptised only believers—and did it by full immersion. Gradually these and other groups became better tolerated and were allowed to exist alongside the Church of England.

As the 17th century drew on, more and more groups split away from the existing denominations to establish new ones emphasising some particular biblical truth or practice that they felt to be more important than unity with the existing churches. One of these was the Society of Friends (the Quakers), started by George Fox.

Revival and more new denominations: 18th century

The 18th century saw widespread spiritual revival in England, with two Anglican ministers as the key figures: George Whitefield and John Wesley. Wesley in particular became convinced that the Church of England was sadly in no condition to nurture the tens of thousands of ordinary Britons who were becoming committed Christians in the revival. Reluctantly, therefore, he established the Methodist Church to do the job.

George Whitefield, who had introduced John Wesley to the novelty of open-air preaching, saw equal success in terms of converts. In his work he enjoyed the support of an influential lady, Selina, Countess of Huntingdon (born 1707). As a member of the Church of England, she used her considerable influence to steer evangelical ministers into many parishes. She also appointed George Whitefield and others as her personal chaplains, a way of providing them with financial support to continue their wider work.

The Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion

As a peer of the realm, the Countess was permitted to open private chapels attached to her various residences, and she used these to the full for the propagation of the gospel. She also opened a college for training young men for the ministry, but the trainees found it increasingly difficult to find posts as ordained ministers in Anglican churches.
Indeed, many Anglican clergy, unhappy with all the Countess was doing, put pressure on her and she eventually left the Church of England. The churches linked with her and her colleagues thus became a separate denomination  called the Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion, and their first ordination service took place in 1783.
The Connexion’s articles of faith kept much in common with those of the Church of England, but also drew elements from other sources, such as the Westminster Confession. Their position was basically Calvinistic and they retained infant baptism. The Countess died in 1791. The denomination still exists today but is quite small—just over twenty congregations. It also has a branch in Sierra Leone.

If you want to see more of David’s writings, do check out his personal website: davidmatthew.org.uk

Life was hard as an unmarried mother

call-the-midwife

I’ve been catching up on Call the Midwife this weekend and, in usual BBC style, it has been haunting my thoughts all week. Following the nuns and midwives of Nonnatus House, Poplar, it’s an extraordinary series that highlights the perils and challenges faced by pregnant women over the decades. We’re up to 1961 now but elements of the storyline still seem archaic. Fathers were excluded from the births of their children, outbreaks of devastating diseases such as typhoid still made unwelcome appearances, and contraception and formula milk were only just becoming available to young women. In the last episode I watched, a young female teacher became pregnant following an affair with a married man and, because of the judgmental attitudes that prevailed at the time, ended up losing her home, her job and almost her life, as she attempted to terminate the pregnancy herself.

The family histories I research are filled with similar stories, and today I found myself working on one that got more and more tragic as I traced each generation back. It began with my client’s great-grandmother, Isabella Connor Brown, born 1879 in Paisley, Renfrewshire. The family believed that Isabella had been adopted by the Brown family, which always raises a red flag for me, as more often than not in those days, the idea of adoption was introduced in order to cover up another story.

As suspected, little Isabella Brown was found, aged 2, living in a lodging house on Back Sneddon Street in Paisley. In the same property there were several other lodgers including a baby called James Brown and a single woman aged 24 called Mary Ann Connor who was a hawker. This was the only time little Isabella could be found living with her mother. Ten years later she was a 12-year-old boarder with a family in Paisley. The words ‘No Relation’ were written next to her name.

Having found Isabella and her mother on the census together, the next job was to piece together Mary Ann’s story. It was even more tragic than her daughter’s, as you will see.

Mary Ann Connor was born in Paisley, Renfrewshire to parents Daniel Connor, a general dealer from Glasgow and Isabella McFarlane, who had been born in Ireland. At the time of the 1861 census the family was living in Abbey Burgh, Renfrewshire and Daniel was a furniture broker. Mary Ann was 7 and had two sisters – Ann, 3, and Catherine, who was only 3 months old. This is the only snapshot we have of the family living together. Four years later, at the age of only 37, Daniel Connor died of alcoholic poisoning, leaving Isabella to look after their young family.

Ten years later there was no trace of daughters, Ann and Catherine, who would have been 13 and 10. Mother, Isabella, was working as a washerwoman on Quay Lane in Paisley. Her 17-year-old daughter, Mary Ann, was a wincey weaver, working on a steam-powered loom with string cotton thread. The hours would have been long and it was dusty, dangerous work. Within another five years, Isabella had also died from bronchitis, aged only 42. Her daughter, Mary Ann, registered the death.

So Mary Ann, in her early twenties, was seemingly all alone in the world. An orphan without siblings she found work as a lithographer’s hand and moved into a boarding house on Back Sneddon Street. At some time in January 1877 Mary Ann allegedly met James Brown, a fitter’s labourer, and she became pregnant. We know very little else about James, if he existed at all. Mary Ann may have fabricated his name, and their marriage, in order to cover-up her illegitimate pregnancy, in any case no marriage record has ever been found.

Mary Ann’s daughter, Isabella, was registered under Mary Ann’s maiden name of Connor and the word ‘Illegitimate’ was added to the record, just in case there was any doubt. Even if Mary Ann had definitely known the identity of her baby’s father, she would not have been able to add his name to the certificate without producing a marriage certificate or the man himself. James Brown, it seems, was not willing to claim the baby as his own. The most likely match we have found for James was a single distillery labourer who was about 10 years older than Mary Ann and living on Castle Street, Paisley.

Nevertheless, it seems that Mary Ann and James continued their relationship after Isabella was born, because in December 1880 another illegitimate child was born to Mary Ann, this time a little boy called James Connor.

The following April, at the time of the 1881 census Mary Ann Connor, still single, was living at 57 Back Sneddon Street and working as a hawker. Perhaps the lithographer had let her go after finding out that she wasn’t married. Her two children were with her: Isabella Brown, 2, and James Brown who was less than a year old. There was no sign of partner, James, but Mary Ann had obviously used his surname on the census for her children. Perhaps she’d been holding out hope that one day James would marry her. However, in another tragic blow, Mary Ann died on October 11 that year, from ‘brain disease’ and a high fever. Her death was registered by ‘an acquaintance’.

There being no social services at all at the time, Mary Ann’s two children, Isabella, 2, and James, 9 months, were completely defenceless and alone. Baby James died two months later of marasmus – malnutrition due to starvation. We don’t know if Mary Ann’s partner, James Brown, had tried to look after their children after Mary Ann died, but we do know that he also drank himself into an early grave and was dead from alcoholism by 1885 when Isabella would have been just 6 years old.

We will probably never know how Isabella was cared for during the rest of her childhood or how she ended up living with a family of strangers by the time of the 1891 census. Perhaps she forgot herself. She remembered the names of her parents when she was asked on her marriage day, so must have known something of her story but to say that she was ‘adopted’ was probably the simplest answer to give.

I wonder if my client is ready to hear all this heartbreak. It certainly rivals any fictional story for plot-twists and tragic irony.

Finding Foundlings

tuffnell midland meckdenburgh brittain

Thanks to Family Detective researcher, Kassie Foran, for this blog post:

I stumbled upon a foundling one day in my research and it sparked an interest – in all our research, we rely on facts and accurate recordings to trace through family history, however in the case of a foundling, the family story typically starts with that one individual. Not only does the baptism record lack the usual information which we rely on for conducting our research – name of mother and father, profession, date of birth, place of birth, but in the case of foundlings, their very name is made up too.

I started saving the baptism records of foundlings – finding it both interesting, and incredibly sad that the baby was usually given the surname after the place they were found. Have a look at the records in the images above – you can see the exact details as to how they got their names.

Babies were typically abandoned due to illegitimacy or inability of the parents to care for the child. The welfare of the children was often administered by charitable organisations, most notably, the Foundling Hospital in London.

Back in the 18th and 19th century if a mother was led to abandon her child, she would often leave them with a scrap of fabric, keeping another scrap herself, thus proving their relationship to one another if they were ever reunited. In 2010 the Daily Telegraph ran a heart-breaking piece about the babies left at the Foundling Hospital, and the stories behind the scraps of fabric.

Whilst in the west today, children are abandoned much less frequently, we still continue to hear stories of adults who were abandoned as children now looking for their parents. On the Family Detective facebook page we recently shared details of Steve, dubbed ‘Gary Gatwick’ who was abandoned in Gatwick Airport in 1986.  He is utilising social media to help his hunt to find his family.

Although it’s incredibly sad that foundlings begin their lives with no known relatives, it’s heart-warming to know that they were rescued, looked after, and given a chance at life – and that’s a good thing.